Land ownership

Natural resource ownership, governance, and revenues are closely tied to land ownership. Federal land represents 27.4% of all U.S. land, mostly concentrated in western states.

Data on this site covers production, revenue, and disbursements for federal lands and waters, as well as nationwide production and economic impact.

Production

The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal lands and waters.

Downloads and documentation

Borate Products

169,073 tons of borate products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Brine Products

48,827 tons of brine products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Clay

51,754 tons of clay were produced on federal land in 2017.

Coal

326,073,802 tons of coal were produced on federal land in 2017.

Copper Concentrate

22,959 tons of copper concentrate were produced on federal land in 2017.

Gas

4,327,941,937 mcf of gas were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

334,135,960 million gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

20,165,180 hundred gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

122,616 million BTUs of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

2,962,979,259 kilowatt hours of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

468,609 units of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

2,061,824,449 thousand pounds of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

2,411 sulfur of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2017.

Gilsonite

12,881 tons of gilsonite were produced on federal land in 2017.

Gold and Silver

0 tons of gold and silver were produced on federal land in 2017.

Gold and Silver Products

0 oz of gold and silver products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Hardrock Products

0 tons of hardrock products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Langbeinite

601,722 tons of langbeinite were produced on federal land in 2017.

Lead Concentrate

105,550 tons of lead concentrate were produced on federal land in 2017.

Muriate Of Potash-Granular

96,814 tons of muriate of potash-granular were produced on federal land in 2017.

Muriate Of Potash-Standard

55,125 tons of muriate of potash-standard were produced on federal land in 2017.

Oil

811,690,488 barrels of oil were produced on federal land in 2017.

Other Coal Products

4,695 tons of other coal products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Phosphate Raw Ore

5,245,607 tons of phosphate raw ore were produced on federal land in 2017.

Potash

22,883 tons of potash were produced on federal land in 2017.

Potassium Products

0 tons of potassium products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Purge Liquor

54,468 equivalent tons of purge liquor were produced on federal land in 2017.

Quartz Crystal

12,281 tickets/pounds of quartz crystal were produced on federal land in 2017.

Salt

1,033,880 tons of salt were produced on federal land in 2017.

Soda Ash

4,539,988 tons of soda ash were produced on federal land in 2017.

Sodium Bi-Carbonate

321,701 tons of sodium bi-carbonate were produced on federal land in 2017.

Sodium Products

365,738 tons of sodium products were produced on federal land in 2017.

Sodium Sesquicarbonate

0 tons of sodium sesquicarbonate were produced on federal land in 2017.

Trona Ore

0 tons of trona ore were produced on federal land in 2017.

Zinc Concentrate

24,545 tons of zinc concentrate were produced on federal land in 2017.

Data withheld

Production volume was withheld for the following products:

Revenue

Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. The types and amounts of payments differ, depending on who owns the natural resources.

Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue ONRR collected in calendar year (CY) 2017 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal lands and waters, broken down by phase of production. In 2017, ONRR collected a total of $6,922,683,701 in revenue.

Downloads and documentation

Commodity1. Securing rights2. Before production3. During productionOther revenue
Oil and Gas
Oil & Gas
$6,148,521,896
$733,873,921$132,154,933Oil$3,978,610,288Gas$991,333,763NGL$228,811,044$83,737,948
Coal
Coal
$557,816,673
$10,212,897$1,190,080$543,543,867$2,869,829
Geothermal
Geothermal
$14,027,625
$102,102$1,595,656$12,111,906$217,961
Offshore renewable energy
Wind
$55,260,084
$51,536,375$3,723,552$0$157
Other products
Carbon dioxide
$48,765,399
$0$0$48,765,399$0
Sodium
$45,811,934
$975,000($16,320)$44,736,574$116,679
Potassium
$7,329,578
$0($100,277)$6,974,195$455,659
Hardrock minerals
$9,574,229
$0($28,913)$9,541,525$61,618
Phosphate
$10,249,726
$120,511$4,567$9,977,754$146,893
Sulfur
$53,801
$0$0$40,856$12,946
Gilsonite
$1,068,399
$0$1,840$1,057,961$8,598
Copper
$26,110
$0$0$0$26,110
Clay
$462
$0$0$0$462
Asphalt
$12,556
$0$0$0$12,556
Helium
($784)
$0$0($784)$0
Gold
$2,604
$0$651$0$1,953
Gemstones
$240
$0$0$0$240
All commodities
All commodities
$6,922,683,701
$796,820,806$138,525,764$5,875,504,339$111,832,792

* Includes revenues not tied to specific commo­dities ($20,904,891 in inspection fees,$3,072,809 in civil penalties, and $185,483 in other revenue).
Commodity1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production beginsOther revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
Oil and Gas
Oil & Gas
$6,148,521,896
$733,873,921$132,154,933Oil$3,978,610,288Gas$991,333,763NGL$228,811,044$83,737,948
OffshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$7 or $11 annual rent per acre, increasing over time up to $44 per acre in some cases12.5%, 16.67%, or18.75% of production value
OnshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$1.50 annual rent per acre for 5 years
$2 annual rent per acre thereafter
12.5% of production value
Coal
Coal
$557,816,673
$10,212,897$1,190,080$543,543,867$2,869,829
Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acreSurface mining: 12.5% of production value + $0.28 per ton in AML fees
Subsurface mining: 8% of production value + $0.12 per ton in AML fees
Geothermal
Geothermal
$14,027,625
$102,102$1,595,656$12,111,906$217,961
Competitive leasingNomination fee: $110 per nomination + $0.11 per acre
Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder
$160 processing fee
$2 per acre for the first year
$3 annual rent per acre for years 2-10
$5 annual rent per acre thereafter
Electricity sales: 1.75% of gross proceeds for 10 years, then 3.5%
Arm’s length sales: 10% of gross proceeds from contract multiplied by lease royalty rate
More about geothermal rates
Noncompetitive leasingLease: $410 payment$1 annual rent per acre for 10 years
$5 annual rent per acre thereafter
Offshore renewable energy
Wind
$55,260,084
$51,536,375$3,723,552$0$157
Competitive leasingBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acre
2% of anticipated value of wind energy produced (unless otherwise specified)
Noncompetitive leasingAcquisition fee: $0.25 per acre
Other products
Hardrock Acquired lands$6,500 prospecting permit fee$37 annual rent per acre + $0.50 annual prospecting fee per acreRoyalty rates are determined by leasing officers on an individual case basis (no minimums apply)
All commodities
All commodities
$6,922,683,701
$796,820,806$138,525,764$5,875,504,339$111,832,792

* Includes revenues not tied to specific commo­dities ($20,904,891 in inspection fees,$3,072,809 in civil penalties, and $185,483 in other revenue).
Other revenue streams
Hardrock mining on public domain landsFederal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
Onshore solar and wind energyFederal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.
To see how much was collected nationwide for all revenue types, including BLM revenues, see federal revenue by company.

Non-tax revenue collected by ONRR often depends on what resources are available on federal lands and waters, as well as the laws and regulations about extraction of each resource.

Downloads and documentation

All commodities

Companies paid $6,922,683,701 to produce all commodities on federal land in 2017.

Asphalt

Companies paid $12,556 to produce asphalt on federal land in 2017.

Carbon dioxide

Companies paid $48,765,399 to produce carbon dioxide on federal land in 2017.

Clay

Companies paid $462 to produce clay on federal land in 2017.

Coal

Companies paid $557,816,673 to produce coal on federal land in 2017.

Copper

Companies paid $26,110 to produce copper on federal land in 2017.

Gas

Companies paid $991,482,004 to produce gas on federal land in 2017.

Gemstones

Companies paid $240 to produce gemstones on federal land in 2017.

Geothermal

Companies paid $14,027,625 to produce geothermal on federal land in 2017.

Gilsonite

Companies paid $1,068,399 to produce gilsonite on federal land in 2017.

Gold

Companies paid $2,604 to produce gold on federal land in 2017.

Hardrock minerals

Companies paid $9,574,229 to produce hardrock minerals on federal land in 2017.

Helium

Companies paid ($784) to produce helium on federal land in 2017.

Hot Springs

Companies paid ($5) to produce hot springs on federal land in 2017.

Limestone

Companies paid $0 to produce limestone on federal land in 2017.

Natural gas liquids

Companies paid $228,126,185 to produce natural gas liquids on federal land in 2017.

Non-commodity revenue

Companies paid $24,163,183 in inspection fees, civil penalties, and other revenues in2017.

Oil

Companies paid $3,972,093,132 to produce oil on federal land in 2017.

Oil & Gas (Non-Royalty)

Companies paid $956,819,935 to produce oil & gas (non-royalty) on federal land in 2017.

Oil Shale

Companies paid $640 to produce oil shale on federal land in 2017.

Other Products

Companies paid ($9) to produce other products on federal land in 2017.

Phosphate

Companies paid $10,249,726 to produce phosphate on federal land in 2017.

Potassium

Companies paid $7,329,578 to produce potassium on federal land in 2017.

Sand & Gravel

Companies paid $0 to produce sand & gravel on federal land in 2017.

Sodium

Companies paid $45,811,934 to produce sodium on federal land in 2017.

Sulfur

Companies paid $53,801 to produce sulfur on federal land in 2017.

Tar Sands

Companies paid $0 to produce tar sands on federal land in 2017.

Wind

Companies paid $55,260,084 to produce wind on federal land in 2017.

Federal disbursements

After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.”

Downloads and documentation

RecipientAmount