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Land ownership

Natural resource ownership, governance, and revenues are closely tied to land ownership. Federal land represents 27.4% of all U.S. land, mostly concentrated in western states.

Data on this site covers production, revenue, and disbursements for federal lands and waters.

Production

The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal lands and waters.

Production in detailDownloads and documentation

Borate Products

169,463 tons of borate products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Brine Products

57,171 tons of brine products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Clay

52,603 tons of clay were produced on federal land in 2018.

Coal

310,851,279 tons of coal were produced on federal land in 2018.

Copper Concentrate

16,639 tons of copper concentrate were produced on federal land in 2018.

Ferro Phosphorous Slag

107,334 tons of ferro phosphorous slag were produced on federal land in 2018.

Gas

4,209,216,702 mcf of gas were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

228,928,771 million gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

31,583,892 hundred gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

272,030 million BTUs of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

3,144,379,792 kilowatt hours of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

167,947 units of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

2,324,494,982 thousand pounds of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

2,424 sulfur of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2018.

Gilsonite

19,371 tons of gilsonite were produced on federal land in 2018.

Gold and Silver

0 tons of gold and silver were produced on federal land in 2018.

Gold and Silver Products

0 oz of gold and silver products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Hardrock Products

12,810 tons of hardrock products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Langbeinite

675,304 tons of langbeinite were produced on federal land in 2018.

Lead Concentrate

104,479 tons of lead concentrate were produced on federal land in 2018.

Muriate Of Potash-Granular

81,863 tons of muriate of potash-granular were produced on federal land in 2018.

Muriate Of Potash-Standard

56,591 tons of muriate of potash-standard were produced on federal land in 2018.

Oil

815,393,983 barrels of oil were produced on federal land in 2018.

Other Coal Products

10,424 tons of other coal products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Phosphate Raw Ore

4,679,682 tons of phosphate raw ore were produced on federal land in 2018.

Potash

27,483 tons of potash were produced on federal land in 2018.

Potassium Products

0 tons of potassium products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Purge Liquor

49,919 equivalent tons of purge liquor were produced on federal land in 2018.

Quartz Crystal

7,578 tickets/pounds of quartz crystal were produced on federal land in 2018.

Salt

1,511,552 tons of salt were produced on federal land in 2018.

Soda Ash

3,872,000 tons of soda ash were produced on federal land in 2018.

Sodium Bi-Carbonate

265,928 tons of sodium bi-carbonate were produced on federal land in 2018.

Sodium Products

199,154 tons of sodium products were produced on federal land in 2018.

Sodium Sesquicarbonate

0 tons of sodium sesquicarbonate were produced on federal land in 2018.

Trona Ore

167,582 tons of trona ore were produced on federal land in 2018.

Zinc Concentrate

27,264 tons of zinc concentrate were produced on federal land in 2018.

Data withheld

Production volume was withheld for the following products:

Revenue

Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. The types and amounts of payments differ, depending on who owns the natural resources.

Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue ONRR collected in calendar year (CY) 2018 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal lands and waters, broken down by phase of production. In 2018, ONRR collected a total of $9,937,663,391 in revenue.

Revenue in detailDownloads and documentation

Commodity1. Securing rights2. Before production3. During productionOther revenue
Oil and Gas
Oil & Gas
$9,236,483,861
$1,560,905,618$126,087,715Oil $6,088,790,628Gas $939,583,273NGL $398,803,485$122,313,141
Coal
Coal
$514,153,471
$11,627,934$1,253,852$500,905,452$366,232
Geothermal
Geothermal
$15,542,814
$0$1,318,843$13,917,551$306,419
Offshore renewable energy
Wind
$4,408,728
$0$4,408,728$0$0
Other products
Carbon dioxide
$52,752,322
$0$0$52,752,322$0
Clay
$10,025
$0$154$9,409$462
Copper
$20
$0$20$0$0
Gilsonite
$1,570,805
$0$1,949$1,559,598$9,258
Gold
$2,604
$0$651$0$1,953
Hardrock minerals
$9,190,643
$0$2,422$9,103,976$84,244
Helium
$1
$0$0$1$0
Phosphate
$9,708,591
$10,000$10,295$9,531,185$157,110
Potassium
$9,088,411
$0$134,379$7,926,572$1,027,459
Sodium
$39,934,503
$960($3,325)$39,763,879$172,988
Sulfur
$284,319
$0$0$284,319$0
All commodities
All commodities
$9,937,663,391
$1,572,544,512$133,215,685$8,062,931,657$168,971,534

* Includes revenues not tied to specific commo­dities ($41,711,630 in inspection fees, $2,528,060 in civil penalties, and $292,575 in other revenue).
Commodity1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production beginsOther revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
Oil and Gas
Oil & Gas
$9,236,483,861
$1,560,905,618$126,087,715Oil $6,088,790,628Gas $939,583,273NGL $398,803,485$122,313,141
OffshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$7 or $11 annual rent per acre, increasing over time up to $44 per acre in some cases12.5%, 16.67%, or18.75% of production value
OnshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$1.50 annual rent per acre for 5 years
$2 annual rent per acre thereafter
12.5% of production value
Coal
Coal
$514,153,471
$11,627,934$1,253,852$500,905,452$366,232
Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acreSurface mining: 12.5% of production value + $0.28 per ton in AML fees
Subsurface mining: 8% of production value + $0.12 per ton in AML fees
Geothermal
Geothermal
$15,542,814
$0$1,318,843$13,917,551$306,419
Competitive leasingNomination fee: $110 per nomination + $0.11 per acre
Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder
$160 processing fee
$2 per acre for the first year
$3 annual rent per acre for years 2-10
$5 annual rent per acre thereafter
Electricity sales: 1.75% of gross proceeds for 10 years, then 3.5%
Arm’s length sales: 10% of gross proceeds from contract multiplied by lease royalty rate
More about geothermal rates
Noncompetitive leasingLease: $410 payment$1 annual rent per acre for 10 years
$5 annual rent per acre thereafter
Offshore renewable energy
Wind
$4,408,728
$0$4,408,728$0$0
Competitive leasingBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acre
2% of anticipated value of wind energy produced (unless otherwise specified)
Noncompetitive leasingAcquisition fee: $0.25 per acre
Other products
Mining claim fees$40 location fee $20 processing fee $165 maintenance feeRoyalty rates are determined by leasing officers on an individual case basis (no minimums apply)
All commodities
All commodities
$9,937,663,391
$1,572,544,512$133,215,685$8,062,931,657$168,971,534

* Includes revenues not tied to specific commo­dities ($41,711,630 in inspection fees,$2,528,060 in civil penalties, and $292,575 in other revenue).
Other revenue streams
Hardrock mining on public domain landsFederal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
Onshore solar and wind energyFederal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.
To see how much was collected nationwide for all revenue types, including BLM revenues, see federal revenue by company.

Non-tax revenue collected by ONRR often depends on what resources are available on federal lands and waters, as well as the laws and regulations about extraction of each resource.

Revenue in detailDownloads and documentation

All commodities

Companies paid $9,937,663,391 to produce all commodities on federal land in 2018.

Asphalt

Companies paid $0 to produce asphalt on federal land in 2018.

Carbon dioxide

Companies paid $52,752,322 to produce carbon dioxide on federal land in 2018.

Clay

Companies paid $10,025 to produce clay on federal land in 2018.

Coal

Companies paid $514,153,471 to produce coal on federal land in 2018.

Copper

Companies paid $20 to produce copper on federal land in 2018.

Gas

Companies paid $939,723,750 to produce gas on federal land in 2018.

Gemstones

Companies paid $0 to produce gemstones on federal land in 2018.

Geothermal

Companies paid $15,542,814 to produce geothermal on federal land in 2018.

Gilsonite

Companies paid $1,570,805 to produce gilsonite on federal land in 2018.

Gold

Companies paid $2,604 to produce gold on federal land in 2018.

Hardrock minerals

Companies paid $9,190,643 to produce hardrock minerals on federal land in 2018.

Helium

Companies paid $1 to produce helium on federal land in 2018.

Hot Springs

Companies paid $0 to produce hot springs on federal land in 2018.

Limestone

Companies paid $0 to produce limestone on federal land in 2018.

Natural gas liquids

Companies paid $398,475,138 to produce natural gas liquids on federal land in 2018.

Oil

Companies paid $6,078,514,838 to produce oil on federal land in 2018.

Oil & Gas

Companies paid $1,819,768,901 to produce oil & gas on federal land in 2018.

Oil Shale

Companies paid $1,234 to produce oil shale on federal land in 2018.

Phosphate

Companies paid $9,708,591 to produce phosphate on federal land in 2018.

Potassium

Companies paid $9,088,411 to produce potassium on federal land in 2018.

Sodium

Companies paid $39,934,503 to produce sodium on federal land in 2018.

Sulfur

Companies paid $284,319 to produce sulfur on federal land in 2018.

Tar Sands

Companies paid $0 to produce tar sands on federal land in 2018.

Wind

Companies paid $4,408,728 to produce wind on federal land in 2018.

Federal disbursements

After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.” In 2019, ONRR disbursed a total of $11,693,266,132.

Disbursements in detailDownloads and documentation

RecipientAmount

U.S. Treasury

The federal government’s basic operating fund pays for roughly two-thirds of all federal expenditures, including the military, national parks, and schools.
Onshore:$550,389,297
GOMESA offshore:$526,724,875
Other offshore:$3,826,926,987
Total:$4,904,041,159

State and local governments

Funds disbursed to states fall under the jurisdiction of each state, and each state determines how the funds will be used.
Onshore:$2,211,276,035
GOMESA offshore:$214,938,996
8(g) offshore:$10,538,488
Total:$2,436,753,520

Reclamation Fund

Supports the establishment of critical infrastructure projects like dams and power plants.
Onshore:$1,759,494,867
Total:$1,759,494,867

Native American tribes and individuals

ONRR disburses 100% of revenue collected from resource extraction on Native American lands back to tribes, nations, and individuals.
Onshore:$1,139,867,748
Total:$1,139,867,748

Land and Water Conservation Fund

Provides matching grants to states and local governments to buy and develop public outdoor recreation areas across the 50 states.

How this fund works

GOMESA offshore:$129,981,812
Other offshore:$877,772,576
Total:$1,007,754,388

Other funds

Some funds are directed back to federal agencies that administer these lands to help cover operational costs. The Ultra-Deepwater Research Program and the Mescal Settlement Agreement also receive $50 million each.
Onshore:$185,298,294
Other offshore:$110,056,157
Total:$295,354,450

Historic Preservation Fund

Helps preserve U.S. historical and archaeological sites and cultural heritage through grants to state and tribal historic preservation offices.

How this fund works

Other offshore:$150,000,000
Total:$150,000,000