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Land ownership

Natural resource extraction varies widely from state to state. In Arizona, extractive industries accounted for 1.3% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016.

Arizona leads the nation in production of:

    Natural resource ownership in the U.S. is closely tied to land ownership. Land can be owned by citizens, corporations, Indian tribes or individuals, or governments (for instance, federal, state, or local governments). Much of the data on this site is limited to natural resource extraction on federal land, which represents 38.6% of all land in Arizona.

    For a detailed view of how copper mining affects communities in Arizona, read the Greenlee County case study or Pima County case study.


    Energy production: The U.S. Energy Information Administration publishes a profile of energy production and usage in Arizona.

    Arizona ranks among the top five states in the U.S. for production of:

    • Solar: #2 in the nation (10% of U.S. production)

    Nonenergy minerals: The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information about nonenergy mineral extraction in the USGS Minerals Yearbook for Arizona.

    The Energy Information Administration collects data about all energy-related natural resources produced on federal, state, and privately owned land.

    Downloads and documentation


    5,422,850 tons of coal were produced in 2016.


    7,167,763 Mwh of hydroelectric were produced in 2016.

    Crude oil

    8,000 barrels of crude oil were produced in 2016.

    Natural gas

    47,000 Mcf of natural gas were produced in 2016.

    Other biomass

    38,242 Mwh of other biomass were produced in 2016.


    3,765,825 Mwh of solar were produced in 2016.


    541,582 Mwh of wind were produced in 2016.

    Wood-derived fuel

    176,136 Mwh of wood-derived fuel were produced in 2016.

    The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal land in Arizona.

    Downloads and documentation


    0 tons of salt were produced on federal land in Arizona in 2017.

    County production

    Maricopa CountyMaricopa County
    County production of salt in 2017 (tons)


    Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. What companies pay to federal, state, and local governments often depends on who owns the natural resources.

    Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Revenue from production on federal land by resource

    When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

    For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

    The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue was collected in Calendar year (CY) 2017 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal land in Arizona, broken down by phase of production.

    Commodity1. Securing rights2. Before production3. During productionOther revenue
    Oil and Gas
    Oil & Gas
    Other products
    All commodities
    All commodities
    Commodity1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production beginsOther revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
    Oil and Gas
    Oil & Gas
    OnshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$1.50 annual rent per acre for 5 years
    $2 annual rent per acre thereafter
    12.5% of production value
    Other products
    Hardrock Acquired lands$6,500 prospecting permit fee$37 annual rent per acre + $0.50 annual prospecting fee per acreRoyalty rates are determined by leasing officers on an individual case basis (no minimums apply)
    All commodities
    All commodities
    Other revenue streams
    Hardrock mining on public domain landsFederal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
    Onshore solar and wind energyFederal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.
    To see how much was collected nationwide for all revenue types, including BLM revenues, see federal revenue by company.

    Most non-tax revenue collected by ONRR comes from counties with significant natural resources on federal land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Federal tax revenue

    Individuals and corporations (specifically C-corporations) pay income taxes to the IRS. The federal corporate income tax rate tops out at 21%. Public policy provisions, such as tax expenditures, can decrease corporate income tax and other revenue payments in order to promote other policy goals.

    Learn more about revenue from extraction on all lands and waters.

    We don’t have detailed data about federal, state, or local revenue from natural resource extraction on land owned by Arizona, corporations, or individuals. However, companies generally must pay state and local taxes.


    After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.”

    Most federal revenue disbursements go into national funds. For detailed data about which expenditures and projects from those national funds are in Arizona, see nationwide federal disbursements.

    ONRR also disburses some revenue from natural resource extraction to state governments. In 2017, ONRR disbursed $10,046 to Arizona.

    Downloads and documentation

    We don’t have detailed data about how states or local governments distribute revenue from natural resource extraction.

    Economic impact

    This data covers gross domestic product and two different types of jobs data.

    To learn more about direct energy employment across all sectors of the U.S. economy, another useful resource is 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report from the Department of Energy. This report has a separate state-by-state analysis of energy employment.

    Data about each state’s gross domestic product comes from the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

    Downloads and documentation

    GDP (dollars)

    In 2016, extractive industries accounted for $3,944,000,000 or 1.29% of Arizona’s GDP.

    The U.S. Census Bureau collects information about the top 25 exports in each state.

    Downloads and documentation


    $2,502,450,000worth of copper was exported from Arizona in 2015.


    $375,730,000worth of gas was exported from Arizona in 2015.

    State governance

    Because Arizona has significant natural resource extraction, we gathered additional information about state agencies and regulations that govern natural resource extraction in Arizona: