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Kentucky

Land ownership

Natural resource extraction varies widely from state to state. In Kentucky, extractive industries accounted for 1.6% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016.

Kentucky leads the nation in production of:

    Natural resource ownership in the U.S. is closely tied to land ownership. Land can be owned by citizens, corporations, Indian tribes or individuals, or governments (for instance, federal, state, or local governments). Much of the data on this site is limited to natural resource extraction on federal land, which represents 4.3% of all land in Kentucky.

    Production

    Energy production: The U.S. Energy Information Administration publishes a profile of energy production and usage in Kentucky.

    Kentucky ranks among the top five states in the U.S. for production of:

    • Coal: #5 in the nation (5% of U.S. production)

    Nonenergy minerals: The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information about nonenergy mineral extraction in the USGS Minerals Yearbook for Kentucky.

    The Energy Information Administration collects data about all energy-related natural resources produced on federal, state, and privately owned land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Coal

    42,867,898 tons of coal were produced in 2016.

    Hydroelectric

    3,477,930 Mwh of hydroelectric were produced in 2016.

    Crude oil

    2,595,000 barrels of crude oil were produced in 2016.

    Natural gas

    91,609,000 Mcf of natural gas were produced in 2016.

    Other biomass

    104,776 Mwh of other biomass were produced in 2016.

    Solar

    11,732 Mwh of solar were produced in 2016.

    Wood-derived fuel

    360,119 Mwh of wood-derived fuel were produced in 2016.

    The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal land in Kentucky.

    Downloads and documentation

    Coal

    0 tons of coal were produced on federal land in Kentucky in 2017.

    County production

    Harlan CountyLeslie CountyHarlan CountyLeslie County
    County production of coal in 2017 (tons)

    Gas

    110,048 mcf of gas were produced on federal land in Kentucky in 2017.

    County production

    Clay CountyFloyd CountyJohnson CountyLawrence CountyLeslie CountyLetcher CountyMcCreary CountyMorgan CountyPike CountyWhitley CountyClay CountyFloyd CountyJohnson CountyLawrence CountyLeslie CountyLetcher CountyMcCreary CountyMorgan CountyPike CountyWhitley County
    County production of gas in 2017 (mcf)

    Oil

    6,026 barrels of oil were produced on federal land in Kentucky in 2017.

    County production

    Clay CountyHenderson CountyLeslie CountyClay CountyHenderson CountyLeslie County
    County production of oil in 2017 (bbl)

    Revenue

    Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. What companies pay to federal, state, and local governments often depends on who owns the natural resources.

    Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Revenue from production on federal land by resource

    When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

    For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

    The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue was collected in Calendar year (CY) 2017 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal land in Kentucky, broken down by phase of production.

    Commodity1. Securing rights2. Before production3. During productionOther revenue
    Coal
    Coal
    $638,210
    $0$9,117$627,989$1,104
    All commodities
    All commodities
    $838,227
    $0$17,210$697,786$123,231
    Commodity1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production beginsOther revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
    OnshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$1.50 annual rent per acre for 5 years
    $2 annual rent per acre thereafter
    12.5% of production value
    Coal
    Coal
    $638,210
    $0$9,117$627,989$1,104
    Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acreSurface mining: 12.5% of production value + $0.28 per ton in AML fees
    Subsurface mining: 8% of production value + $0.12 per ton in AML fees
    All commodities
    All commodities
    $838,227
    $0$17,210$697,786$123,231
    Other revenue streams
    Hardrock mining on public domain landsFederal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
    Onshore solar and wind energyFederal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.
    To see how much was collected nationwide for all revenue types, including BLM revenues, see federal revenue by company.

    Most non-tax revenue collected by ONRR comes from counties with significant natural resources on federal land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Federal tax revenue

    Individuals and corporations (specifically C-corporations) pay income taxes to the IRS. The federal corporate income tax rate tops out at 21%. Public policy provisions, such as tax expenditures, can decrease corporate income tax and other revenue payments in order to promote other policy goals.

    Learn more about revenue from extraction on all lands and waters.

    We don’t have detailed data about federal, state, or local revenue from natural resource extraction on land owned by Kentucky, corporations, or individuals. However, companies generally must pay state and local taxes.

    Disbursements

    After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.”

    Most federal revenue disbursements go into national funds. For detailed data about which expenditures and projects from those national funds are in Kentucky, see nationwide federal disbursements.

    ONRR also disburses some revenue from natural resource extraction to state governments. In 2017, ONRR disbursed $185,904 to Kentucky.

    Downloads and documentation

    We don’t have detailed data about how states or local governments distribute revenue from natural resource extraction.

    Economic impact

    This data covers gross domestic product and two different types of jobs data.

    To learn more about direct energy employment across all sectors of the U.S. economy, another useful resource is 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report from the Department of Energy. This report has a separate state-by-state analysis of energy employment.

    Data about each state’s gross domestic product comes from the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

    Downloads and documentation

    GDP (dollars)

    In 2016, extractive industries accounted for $3,191,000,000 or 1.62% of Kentucky’s GDP.

    The U.S. Census Bureau collects information about the top 25 exports in each state.

    Downloads and documentation

    Other nonenergy minerals

    $359,000,000worth of other nonenergy minerals was exported from Kentucky in 2015.

    State governance

    Because Kentucky has significant natural resource extraction, we gathered additional information about state agencies and regulations that govern natural resource extraction in Kentucky: