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Montana

Land ownership

Natural resource extraction varies widely from state to state. In Montana, extractive industries accounted for 2.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016.

Montana leads the nation in production of:

    Natural resource ownership in the U.S. is closely tied to land ownership. Land can be owned by citizens, corporations, Indian tribes or individuals, or governments (for instance, federal, state, or local governments). Much of the data on this site is limited to natural resource extraction on federal land, which represents 29.0% of all land in Montana.

    The state of Montana chose to participate in an extended reporting process, so this page includes additional state revenue and disbursements data, as well as contextual information about state governance of natural resources.

    Production

    Energy production: The U.S. Energy Information Administration publishes a profile of energy production and usage in Montana.

    Montana ranks among the top five states in the U.S. for production of:

    • Hydroelectric: #5 in the nation (3% of U.S. production)

    Nonenergy minerals: The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information about nonenergy mineral extraction in the USGS Minerals Yearbook for Montana.

    The Energy Information Administration collects data about all energy-related natural resources produced on federal, state, and privately owned land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Coal

    32,335,656 tons of coal were produced in 2016.

    Hydroelectric

    10,082,529 Mwh of hydroelectric were produced in 2016.

    Crude oil

    23,178,000 barrels of crude oil were produced in 2016.

    Natural gas

    52,125,000 Mcf of natural gas were produced in 2016.

    Solar

    0 Mwh of solar were produced in 2016.

    Wind

    2,140,191 Mwh of wind were produced in 2016.

    Wood-derived fuel

    20,150 Mwh of wood-derived fuel were produced in 2016.

    The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal land in Montana.

    Downloads and documentation

    Coal

    14,015,797 tons of coal were produced on federal land in Montana in 2017.

    County production

    Big Horn CountyMusselshell CountyRichland CountyRosebud CountyTreasure CountyBig Horn CountyMusselshell CountyRichland CountyRosebud CountyTreasure County
    County production of coal in 2017 (tons)

    Gas

    11,832,528 mcf of gas were produced on federal land in Montana in 2017.

    County production

    Big Horn CountyBlaine CountyCarbon CountyCarter CountyChouteau CountyCuster CountyDawson CountyFallon CountyFergus CountyGlacier CountyHill CountyLiberty CountyPhillips CountyPondera CountyPowder River CountyPrairie CountyRichland CountyRoosevelt CountyRosebud CountySheridan CountyStillwater CountyToole CountyValley CountyWibaux CountyBig Horn CountyBlaine CountyCarbon CountyCarter CountyChouteau CountyCuster CountyDawson CountyFallon CountyFergus CountyGlacier CountyHill CountyLiberty CountyPhillips CountyPondera CountyPowder River CountyPrairie CountyRichland CountyRoosevelt CountyRosebud CountySheridan CountyStillwater CountyToole CountyValley CountyWibaux County
    County production of gas in 2017 (mcf)

    Oil

    2,862,422 barrels of oil were produced on federal land in Montana in 2017.

    County production

    Blaine CountyCarbon CountyCarter CountyDawson CountyFallon CountyGarfield CountyGlacier CountyLiberty CountyMusselshell CountyPetroleum CountyPowder River CountyPrairie CountyRichland CountyRoosevelt CountyRosebud CountySheridan CountyStillwater CountyToole CountyWibaux CountyYellowstone CountyBlaine CountyCarbon CountyCarter CountyDawson CountyFallon CountyGarfield CountyGlacier CountyLiberty CountyMusselshell CountyPetroleum CountyPowder River CountyPrairie CountyRichland CountyRoosevelt CountyRosebud CountySheridan CountyStillwater CountyToole CountyWibaux CountyYellowstone County
    County production of oil in 2017 (bbl)

    Revenue

    Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. What companies pay to federal, state, and local governments often depends on who owns the natural resources.

    Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

    Downloads and documentation

    Revenue from production on federal land by resource

    When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

    For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

    The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue was collected in Calendar year (CY) 2017 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal land in Montana, broken down by phase of production.

    Commodity1. Securing rights2. Before production3. During productionOther revenue
    Oil and Gas
    Oil & Gas
    $18,338,806
    $762,956$773,560Oil$13,883,802Gas$2,034,156NGL$70,245$814,087
    Coal
    Coal
    $32,773,202
    $0$111,816$32,661,386$0
    Other products
    Sulfur
    $239
    $0$0$239$0
    Phosphate
    $4,227
    $0$0$0$4,227
    All commodities
    All commodities
    $51,116,474
    $762,956$885,376$48,649,828$818,314
    Commodity1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production beginsOther revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
    Oil and Gas
    Oil & Gas
    $18,338,806
    $762,956$773,560Oil$13,883,802Gas$2,034,156NGL$70,245$814,087
    OnshoreBonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$1.50 annual rent per acre for 5 years
    $2 annual rent per acre thereafter
    12.5% of production value
    Coal
    Coal
    $32,773,202
    $0$111,816$32,661,386$0
    Bonus: The amount offered by the highest bidder$3 annual rent per acreSurface mining: 12.5% of production value + $0.28 per ton in AML fees
    Subsurface mining: 8% of production value + $0.12 per ton in AML fees
    Other products
    Hardrock Acquired lands$6,500 prospecting permit fee$37 annual rent per acre + $0.50 annual prospecting fee per acreRoyalty rates are determined by leasing officers on an individual case basis (no minimums apply)
    All commodities
    All commodities
    $51,116,474
    $762,956$885,376$48,649,828$818,314
    Other revenue streams
    Hardrock mining on public domain landsFederal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
    Onshore solar and wind energyFederal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.