A fee for current day coal production that funds reclamation of mines abandoned before 1977.
Accounting year data contains transactions for sales that took place in the current year, as well as adjusted or corrected transactions for sales that took place in previous years. Because they include adjusted or corrected transactions for previous sales periods, accounting year data should not be used for trending purposes or for analyzing sales volumes.
Acquired lands are public lands that were obtained by the federal government through purchase, condemnation, gift, or exchange.
A fee for securing an uncompetitive lease in place of a bonus.
A yearly maintenance fee for maintaining a claim.
Application for permit to drill
In the U.S., an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, and abbreviated as bbl.
Abbreviation for a unit of measurement of oil. One bbl, or oil barrel, is defined as 42 US gallons.
Organic nonfossil matter used as fuel. Sources of biomass include wood, wood waste products, biofuel, and many plant-based materials.
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and manages exploration, development, and production of natural resources on federal lands.
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is responsible for managing the development of energy and mineral resources on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf.
The amount the highest bidder paid for a natural resource lease.
The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is charged with promoting safety, protecting the environment, and conserving resources offshore through regulatory oversight and enforcement.
Calendar year (CY)
The calendar year runs from January 1 through December 31. The two annual time periods for reporting data are calendar year and fiscal year.
A fee that covers the government’s administrative costs in the claim-staking process for mining on federal lands.
People and organizations not associated with industry or government, such as trade unions, issue-based coalitions, faith-based organizations, indigenous-peoples movements, the media, think tanks, and foundations.
Oil is that is not treated or refined.
Geothermal energy (hot water near the surface of the earth) can be used directly for heating buildings, drying crops, heating water, and other industrial processes.
Dry natural gas
Natural gas that remains after removing the liquefiable hydrocarbon portion from the gas stream (i.e., gas after lease, field, or plant separation) and after removing any quantities of nonhydrocarbon gases that render the gas unmarketable.
The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet-level agency responsible for managing America’s natural and cultural resources.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A document intended to provide decision makers and the public with information about the potential impacts of major federal actions and alternatives to them. Federal agencies prepare an EIS if a proposed federal action is determined to significantly affect the quality of the human environment, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Standard is an international standard for openness around the management of revenue from natural resources. Governments disclose how much they receive from extractive companies operating in their country and these companies disclose how much they pay. Governments sign up to implement the EITI Standard and must meet seven requirements.
Oil, gas, and mining industries that extract natural resources.
Fair market value
The estimated price for a natural resource lease, based on the government’s analysis and the geological resources on the lands or waters.
Lands and waters owned by the federal government, including public domain lands, acquired lands, and the Outer Continental Shelf.
Fiscal year (FY)
The federal government’s fiscal year runs from October 1 through September 30. The two annual time periods for reporting data are calendar year and fiscal year.
An energy source formed in the Earth’s crust from decayed organic material. Common fossil fuels include oil, gas, and coal.
The division of ownership among multiple individuals.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
A measure of the total value of goods and services produced in a specific area. The Bureau of Economic Analysis measures GDP by adding up the “real value added” for each industry that contributes to the U.S. economy.
A well development process that involves injecting water under high pressure into a bedrock formation through the well, to increase the size and extent of existing bedrock fractures.
The Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982, which increased Indian self-governance concerning extraction.
Independent Administrator (IA)
The EITI International Board requires participating countries to appoint an Independent Administrator to help apply the international standards. The USEITI Independent Administrator is Deloitte & Touche LLP.
Lands owned by Native Americans, including tribal lands held in trust by the federal government for a tribe’s use, Indian allotments held in trust by the federal government for individual use, and lands held by Alaska Native corporations.
Kilowatt hour (kWh)
A measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of 1,000 watts for 1 hour; abbreviated as kWh.
Abbreviation for “kilowatt hour,” a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of 1,000 watts for 1 hour.
A contract that allows a company to be the exclusive entity that can apply to explore for and extract natural resources within a specific tract of federal lands or waters.
Light liquid hydrocarbons recovered from oil and natural gas wells during production.
Locatable minerals are minerals that may be “located” and obtained by filing a mining claim. Locatable minerals include gold, silver, copper, lead, and many other metallic and nonmetallic minerals.
Margin of variance
The percentage difference that the USEITI Multi-Stakeholder Group defined as significant for each revenue type as part of the reconciliation process.
A discrepancy between government-reported and company-reported revenue payments that is considered significant by the Independent Administrator. Margins of variance vary by revenue type, and were approved by the Multi-Stakeholder Group as part of the USEITI process.
1000 cubic feet, a unit of measure for natural gas.
Megawatt Capacity (MC) fee
A revenue payment for the calculated value of electricity generated on federal lands.
One megawatt is equivalent to one million watts. One megawatt hour (abbreviated as Mwh) is equivalent to 1,000 Kilowatt hours.
One metric ton is equal to 2240 pounds. To convert metric tons to tons, multiply by 1.1023. To convert tons to metric tons, multiply by 0.9072.
A millage tax is a property tax based on the assessed value of a property. Millage tax rates are quantified in terms of mills: One mill is worth 1/1000 of a dollar, or $0.001.
A mill levy is calculated by determining how much revenue each taxing jurisdiction will need for the upcoming year, then dividing that projection by the total value of the property within the area.
A mill rate is the amount of tax payable per dollar on the assessed value of a property. Each mill is worth one-tenth of a cent, or $0.001.
Sometimes the land’s surface owner is different from the owner of the minerals in the ground below. For instance, a state might retain mineral rights when it sells or swaps land.
Mineral resource potential
According to the U.S. Geological Survey, mineral resource potential is the likelihood for the occurrence of undiscovered mineral resources in a defined area.
Multi-Stakeholder Group (MSG)
A cross-sector body comprised of members and alternates from government, industry, and civil society organizations commissioned by the Secretary of the Interior to guide and monitor EITI implementation.
Natural gas liquids (NGL)
Natural gas liquids, such as ethane, propane, and butane, are byproducts of wet natural gas. These liquid hydrocarbons are separated from the gas stream close to the well or at a processing plant.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
The standard used by federal agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. economy.
The Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is responsible for collecting, disbursing, and verifying federal and Indian energy and other natural resource revenue.
A fee for a percentage of the anticipated value of wind energy produced on federal waters.
Outer Continental Shelf
The part of the continental shelf under federal jurisdiction, seaward of the line that marks state ownership, often three miles off a state’s coastline.
The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is responsible for regulating surface coal mining in the United States, as well as funding the restoration of abandoned coal mines.
The Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians (OST) is part of the Department of the Interior and is responsible for stewardship of assets held in trust on behalf of American Indians.
Quantities of oil or gas that are sufficient to yield a profit to the lease holder over operating expenses, even though the drilling costs or equipping costs are never recovered, and even if the undertaking as a whole may result in a loss to the lease holder.
Products come from processing crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. These include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.
A group of oil and gas fields in the same region formed by the same geological processes.
Lands owned by citizens or corporations.
We use the term “production” as a catch-all term for mining, drilling, energy generation, and other forms of natural resource extraction. There is no distinction between “extraction” and “production” in ONRR or EIA datasets.
Quantities of natural resources that, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be commercially recoverable from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations.
Public domain lands
Public domain lands are lands that have belonged to the federal government since they were obtained from the 13 original colonies, from Native American tribes, or through purchases from other countries, and have not been dedicated to a specific use.
The process of restoring the surface environment to acceptable pre-existing conditions, including surface contouring, equipment removal, well plugging, and revegetation.
An annual payment for leasing lands or waters before production starts.
Energy resources that are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. These include biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action energy.
Resource advisory council (RAC)
A group of 12 to 15 members with diverse interests in local communities, such as ranchers, environmental groups, tribes, state and local government officials, academics, and other public land users.
A payment for extracted natural resources, determined by a percentage of the resources’ production value.
Standard Occupation Classification
A system used by federal statistical agencies to classify workers into occupational categories for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or disseminating data.
State or local lands
Lands owned by state or local governments.
A land parcel that has surface rights and subsurface rights (such as the rights to develop minerals) owned by different parties.
A lease holder’s right to use as much of the land beneath the surface as necessary to operate under the lease.
Underground mining, which has different and more labor intensive techniques than surface mining.
A leaseholder’s right to use as much of the surface of the land as necessary to operate under the lease.
Revenue lossess attributed to provisions of federal tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income, or which provide a special credit, a preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability.
In the U.S., one ton is 2,000 pounds. In some countries this is referred to as a short ton.
Land for which the federal government holds title to the land but the beneficial interest remains with a Native American individual or tribe.
In Alaska, over half of land is not contained in any of its 19 organized boroughs. This land (collectively called the Unorganized Borough) is divided into 10 census areas for statistical purposes.
During the reconciliation process, only variances between reported numbers that exceed a minimum dollar amount are investigated by the Independent Administrator.
Natural gas that hasn’t been treated to remove liquid hydrocarbons or other nonhydrocarbons that make the gas unmarketable.
Data may be withheld for several reasons. In some cases, usually where only one company is extracting a resource in a county, the specific amount produced in that state or county is withheld to protect trade secrets.
Natural resource extraction varies widely from state to state.
In North Carolina, extractive industries accounted for
of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2016.
Natural resource ownership in the U.S. is closely tied to land ownership. Land can be owned by citizens, corporations, Indian tribes or individuals, or governments (for instance, federal, state, or local governments). Much of the data on this site is limited to natural resource extraction on federal land, which represents
of all land in North Carolina.
The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resources produced on federal land. According to that data, there was no natural resource production on federal land in North Carolina in 2016.
Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. What companies pay to federal, state, and local governments often depends on who owns the natural resources.
Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Revenue data on this site primarily includes non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.
Revenue from production on federal land by resource
When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).
The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue was collected in Calendar year (CY) 2017 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal land in North Carolina, broken down by phase of production.
1. Securing rightsCompanies pay bonuses or other fees to secure rights to resources on federal land
2. Before productionCompanies pay rent on federal land while exploring for resources
3. During productionCompanies pay royalties after production begins
Other revenueMinimum or estimated royalties, settlements, and interest payments
Other revenue streams
Hardrock mining on public domain lands
Federal revenue from hardrock mining on public domain land occurs through the claim-staking process and is managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). It is not included here, because the dataset does not have state-level data. Learn more about hardrock mining on federal land.
Onshore solar and wind energy
Federal revenue from onshore renewable energy generation on federal land is not included here, because that dataset, from BLM, does not have state-level data. Learn more about onshore renewables on federal land.
County revenue in 2017
There is no county-level data for North Carolina in 2017.
County-level data for 2017 is withheld.
Companies paid $ to extract natural resources on federal land in Clay County in 2017.
Federal tax revenue
Individuals and corporations (specifically C-corporations) pay income taxes to the IRS. The federal corporate income tax rate tops out at 21%. Public policy provisions, such as tax expenditures, can decrease corporate income tax and other revenue payments in order to promote other policy goals.
We don’t have detailed data about federal, state, or local revenue from natural resource extraction on land owned by North Carolina, corporations, or individuals. However, companies generally must pay state and local taxes.
After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.”
Most federal revenue disbursements go into national funds. For detailed data about which expenditures and projects from those national funds are in North Carolina, see nationwide federal disbursements.
ONRR also disburses some revenue from natural resource extraction to state governments.
In 2017, ONRR disbursed
to North Carolina.
County employment in extractive industries (jobs, 2016)
There is no county-level data for North Carolina in 2016.
County-level data for 2016 is withheld.
% of all jobs in county
In 2016, there were 47 jobs in the extractive industries in Alamance County.
In 2016, there were 87 jobs in the extractive industries in Buncombe County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Burke County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Caldwell County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Chatham County.
In 2016, there were 28 jobs in the extractive industries in Cherokee County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Cleveland County.
In 2016, there were 45 jobs in the extractive industries in Craven County.
In 2016, there were 21 jobs in the extractive industries in Davidson County.
In 2016, there were 25 jobs in the extractive industries in Davie County.
In 2016, there were 11 jobs in the extractive industries in Edgecombe County.
In 2016, there were 138 jobs in the extractive industries in Forsyth County.
In 2016, there were 20 jobs in the extractive industries in Franklin County.
In 2016, there were 7 jobs in the extractive industries in Graham County.
In 2016, there were 83 jobs in the extractive industries in Guilford County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Henderson County.
In 2016, there were 28 jobs in the extractive industries in Iredell County.
In 2016, there were 47 jobs in the extractive industries in Johnston County.
In 2016, there were 57 jobs in the extractive industries in Lee County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Lincoln County.
In 2016, there were 103 jobs in the extractive industries in McDowell County.
In 2016, there were 12 jobs in the extractive industries in Macon County.
In 2016, there were 232 jobs in the extractive industries in Mecklenburg County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Montgomery County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Moore County.
In 2016, there were 21 jobs in the extractive industries in Orange County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Pender County.
In 2016, there were 18 jobs in the extractive industries in Pitt County.
In 2016, there were 28 jobs in the extractive industries in Randolph County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Richmond County.
In 2016, there were 182 jobs in the extractive industries in Rowan County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Surry County.
In 2016, there were jobs in the extractive industries in Swain County.
In 2016, there were 4 jobs in the extractive industries in Transylvania County.
In 2016, there were 231 jobs in the extractive industries in Wake County.
In 2016, there were 33 jobs in the extractive industries in Watauga County.
In 2016, there were 26 jobs in the extractive industries in Wilson County.
Wage and salary jobs by commodity
Jobs are categorized according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). To learn more about how we grouped those categories, see data and documentation.
Geothermal, hydroelectric, solar, and wind energy categories are limited to jobs directly related to electrical energy generation. To learn more about all energy-related employment, see the 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report from the Department of Energy.
oil and gas
Self-employment data, from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, describes people who work in natural resource extraction, but don’t receive wages or salaries because they own their own companies.