Who owns natural resources in the U.S.?
What natural resources are extracted in the U.S.?
Fossil fuels are our main source of electricity, and the primary fuel for powering motor vehicles and heating homes.
Nonenergy minerals include base and precious metals, industrial metals, and gemstones, among others.
Renewable energy comes from sources that are not depleted when used. These resources include geothermal, solar, wind, water, and biomass.
What laws and regulations govern natural resource extraction in the U.S.?
The legislative branch has passed many laws governing natural resource extraction on federal lands.
The government reforms laws and regulations by enacting new legislation and proposing new rules for implementation.
State agencies create regulations and rules about natural resource extraction. Local government agencies also play a role.
How are natural resources on tribal land governed?
Native American land ownership involves a complex patchwork of titles, restrictions, obligations, statutes, and regulations.
Extracting natural resources on tribal land involves unique processes and multiple stakeholders.
Natural resources are increasingly a key source of income for many Native American tribes. In 2017, ONRR
How do natural resources result in federal revenue?
The production process
Oil and gas (or natural gas) are fossil fuels that form underground on land and under the ocean. The U.S. is among the world's top producers of oil and gas.
Miners extract coal through surface and subsurface mining. Most of the coal produced on federal land in the U.S. is mined in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming.
Gold, copper, and iron are the main sources of nonenergy mineral revenues. The Mining Law of 1872 is the major federal law governing locatable minerals.
Understanding federal revenues
Learn how revenues work
See federal non-tax revenues from natural resource extraction on federal land in 2016 by commodity, revenue type, and company.
Corporations pay income taxes to the IRS, but the IRS cannot release confidental data about the amounts of individual payments.
This program uses fees from present-day coal mining companies to reclaim coal mines abandoned before 1977.
Coal producers pay a federal excise tax, which originated in 1977 with the Black Lung Revenue Act, when they mine coal in the U.S.
Understand the details of the leasing process for offshore liquid minerals.
How does the U.S. ensure accuracy and accountability in natural resource revenues?
Data about revenue from the extractive industries is subject to a number of controls, standards, and regulations.